The belief system surrounding Haa At.óowu (our treasures) was challenged, and clan objects were sought by the outsiders as curios and artifacts. The creativity and workmanship of the early artists, as well as the exotic features of our artistic traditions, spurred an intense period of collecting by Westerners during the last quarter of the 1800s until the early 1900s.
Other factors contributed to changes within the traditional material culture. Native peoples became increasingly restricted in their abilities to maintain access to their traditional subsistence economies, and they entered the cash economy to sustain their livelihood. Additionally, the practice of art apprenticeships all but disappeared. Art production continued, but it was largely limited to the tourist market which seriously began in the late 1800s. With the increasing production for the export market and the decreasing number of young artists apprenticing with master artists, the quality of art production deteriorated. Fortunately, a few artists were able to continue their ancient traditions, but the great art masterpieces that brought acclaim to the Southeast Native cultures were primarily located in museums.